A simple explanation of the IOTA Coordicide

In the last few days a lot has been said and speculated about Coordicide. Maybe not every person knows exactly what the Coordinator and the Coordicide is and what kind of implications arise. We want to provide education with this little essay.

Source: https://blog.iota.org/coordinator-part-1-the-path-to-coordicide-ee4148a8db08

In order to protect the Tangle in its early phase attacks, IOTA uses the review so called “Coordinator” (also: “Coo”). The Coo is a special node operated by the IOTA Foundation. He regularly publishes zero-value transactions that perform a checkpoint function on Tangle. These transactions, also called “milestones”, determine the direction in which Tangle is being spun. A transaction is only valid if it is confirmed by the coordinator directly or indirectly with a “milestone”.

The use of the coordinator often meets with criticism in the crypto scene, because in principle he gives the IOTA Foundation the last word on the status quo of the network. Although the Foundation can not retroactively invalidate transactions; however, it could de facto freeze deposits of participants in the network where the coordinator does not take their transactions into account when publishing new milestones. In addition, an attack on the coordinator could paralyze the whole Tangle. Last but not least, the use of the coordinator curtails the scalability of IOTA, which is actually one of the greatest strengths of the protocol.

The above criticism can be summed up in one word: centralization. The criticism does not fall on deaf ears at IOTA, on the contrary: The Coo was provided from the beginning as a temporary solution. On the question of the end of the coordinator, the IOTA Foundation writes in its blog:

“ The short answer is that the coordinator can and will be removed if our research team is convinced that we sufficiently understand the coordinator-free Tangle.“

That’s why the IOTA Foundation plans to launch a coordinator-free testnet. Within this testnet, various theroetic approaches will be tested, which should make IOTA a long-term decentralized IoT platform without any scaling problems.

IOTA has reportedly settled on a plan to end centralization within its network by eliminating its coordinator node. The IOTA team was responsive, and they began working on a solution in late November. This process has been thoroughly outlined on the IOTA blog.

Three possible approaches were considered. First, a node accountability and reputation system was proposed. Next, an improved tip selection algorithm with random walks was suggested. Finally, a constellation-like “star” system with trusted transaction pathways was considered.

Any of these solutions would eliminate the need for a coordinator node. It is likely that the IOTA Foundation will make an official announcement in the near future.

Many have hoped that the „IOTA Research Summit 2019“ will give them some more clarity about the specific design or schedule for eliminating the Coordinator.

Unfortunately, this meeting did not give any clarity to outsiders in this regard.The following has been published from the IOTA Foundation:

„The Coordicide and Attack Analysis teams mostly worked separately at the IOTA Research Summit 2019, but did come together at the end to present their progress to the whole department. These days afforded an opportunity for the creative process to take over, as clarity about questions, requirements, and next steps, guided the IOTA´s team’s work. The topics of coordicide and reusable addresses were a big focus, and much progress was made. The IOTA Team look forward to sharing more about everything in the future.“

We hope that we will soon receive specific information about the Coordicide and that it will implement the necessary path. This makes IOTA even stronger and it would also be a sign of strength for the critics.

IOTA and Smart Cities

In this part, we will continue our journey into the future with the Smart Cities. Click here for the research article. In particular, we will discuss the role that IOTA can play in this. public IOTA contacts experts for the respective topics in order to carry out a basic research. We are particularly pleased that we were able to receive guest authors Nina Pfuderer and Lena Papasabbas from the „Zukunftsinstitut„. The „Zukunftsinstitut“ was founded in 1998 and decisively shaped trend and future research in Germany from the beginning. Today, the company is considered one of the most influential think tanks in European trend and futures research. Our guest author Lena Papasabbas deals with the transformation of the network society, its people, values and technologies. As a cultural anthropologist she is interested in all facets of our increasingly heterogeneous culture and deals with central development dynamics.

A journey into IOTA’s future …

We have now published the first part of our research article Vision: IOTA in 10 years / Part 2: A journey into IOTA's future ... The article is here: https://publiciota.com/vision-iota-part2 To begin of the journey, we will first carry out a location determination. Worth mentioning in this context are the large partnerships with Bosch, Volkswagen and Fujitsu. But also Smart City projects like Tokyo, Taipei and Haarlem. In addition, there is cooperation with the UN (UNOPS) and ITIC. But we should not forget also countless smaller projects, which will be, in the future, in IOTA's Ecosystem. An example of this is the project of the WZL Aachen. That all is quite impressive for such a young cryptocurrency. Please Enjoy the article.

Vision: IOTA in 10 years / Part 1: Every beginning is difficult …

We have now published the first part of our research article Vision: IOTA in 10 years / Part 1: https://publiciota.com/vision-iota Before we discuss the future vision of IOTA, we would like to start with a few basics for everyone. Often we are asked how Blockchain, for example, Bitcoin works at all before going to the question of how IOTA delimited from it. With this first part we want to convey basics

Now we will be dedicated to the future and gradually publish the topics: Journey to the IOTA Future, Urban Living, Smart Mobility, E-Health, Smart Energy, and Industrial IOT for example. Have fun while reading

Vision: IOTA in 10 years

The Twitter survey has shown that the vast majority (over 60 %) has opted for the new research topic: „Vision: IOTA in 10 years“. Thank you for your voting. We will gladly accept that. In the next few days we will try to contact the IOTA founders, futurologists, IOTA skeptics, bankers and entrepreneurs for example, so that they can also present their visions. So we will try a good research on this topic.

In addition, we would like to ask you for something: We would be pleased if those of you, who have graphic ideas about the future of IOTA or the future of IOTA applications, sent us a picture as png, jepg for example. A selection of these pictures will then also be published with the research topic „Vision: IOTA in 10 years“. It is important that you have created the pictures by yourself and no copyright infringes. The pictures will be published with your name. Of course, you keep the image rights.

Thank you in advance for your help. Please send the pictures or graphics until the 8th of June to info@publiciota.com



Smart cities are the answer to the big challenges of the future

Cities are getting bigger in the global context. Every 16 months, the population of a city exceeds the ten million mark. This ongoing process of urbanization therefore creates challenges that need to be mastered to ensure quality of life. Without intelligent technology, giant cities can become monster cities. The challenge is therefore to design the city of the future to be technologically intelligent and networked so that urban living spaces can be cleaner, safer and more stress-free.

The opportunity: to improve the quality of life of the residents

According to a forecast, no later than 2050, 60 percent of humanity will live in cities. A whole range of things are desirable to improve the quality of life in a big city. In particular, the gap between poor and rich is often incredibly large in the big cities. A city of the future, an intelligent city uses intelligent and connected technologies to support us in our daily lives. They allow us to save time, use new forms of mobility and breathe cleaner air. In short, Smart City technologies are working to improve the overall quality of life for their residents. Less congestion, smart homes and energy efficient use of buildings are just a few of the benefits. All this is also necessary to take the people in the poorer outskirts of the city and to inspire them for the Smart City project. Because it only succeeds if the inhabitants take advantage of it.

Find solutions to the important challenges

Air quality, energy efficiency, urban mobility and safety – these are four of the most challenging challenges resulting from urbanization. Air pollution is one of the biggest problems in many cities, especially in emerging markets. It is important to reinvent the cities instead of just changing individual symptoms. The IT and Big Data is only one resource among others and not the sole engine of Smart Citys. It also takes long-term cultural and political decisions to develop new cities – no matter if you call them „smart“, „open“ or „thinking“.

Contain the air pollution

Systems for collecting data and monitoring the climate can provide valuable services here. Big data is the buzzword that can be used to combat air pollution. Researchers believe that there is potential for using big data to improve emissions estimates, because in many areas of daily life, large amounts of data are already being collected. For example, data sources could be used for traffic that are already covered by government agencies and companies like Google. This includes satellite observations that can be used to assess land use and plant growth. This would allow emission estimates to be refined and air pollution predictions to be improved. Cities could then use the data to introduce measures to improve air quality, for example, to change traffic flows.


Avoid traffic jams and parking

More people mean more roads and roads – there is a need for action on urban mobility. The Bosch product portfolio already includes intelligent mobility solutions. In the future, systems for connected parking, autonomous cars, electromobility and multimodal transport will be used. For example, the vehicles recognize a parking space when they drive off and pass on the data anonymously to other drivers nearby so that drivers can concentrate on more important things. Motorists who are looking for a free parking space, are therefore guided without loss of time directly to the next parking lot. People who park quickly in a parking garage or other open space do not have to drive around the block several times – that means emptier roads, lower emissions, less fuel, time and money, and above all reduced stress.

Energy efficiency as a solution to climate problems

The everyday electricity comes from the outlet – but where is it produced? Across countries, countless regenerative, mostly decentralized generation plants have to be integrated and controlled into the existing system. In order to reconcile the fluctuating feed-in of photovoltaic and wind power plants with the energy demand, the use of digital technologies is necessary. In addition, a state-of-the-art infrastructure must be created that will enable a real-time energy industry in the future.

Solutions that make it possible to combine energy from a large number of predominantly regenerative sources and centralize it are necessary. Such progress helps cities to reduce CO₂ missions.

Big Data and Drinking Water Hygiene

Water is the basis of life and water hygiene is given high priority in metropolitan areas and large cities. Contaminated and contaminated water meets there especially many people. Several factors in the planning, construction and operation of water supply systems contribute to a permanently high water quality.

If water stops for a long time or the temperature in the pipes increases, the risk of bacteria formation increases. Big data solutions promise insights that were previously unavailable.

Changed flow conditions and temperature fluctuations in pipes can be constantly checked by using sensors. Problem areas are recognized in the first place and countermeasures are made faster and more accurate. The monitoring of sewers also allows pinpoint identification of damaged or clogged pipes.

Challenge security

The increase in violence and crime in the giant cities is immense. The crime statistics show an increase in crime among growing cities. Many city dwellers are worried that they will be burgled or violent if they have to walk the streets alone at night. Intelligent technology can provide useful services and create a better feeling. For example, networked surveillance cameras can be a deterrent to crime, both in city life and in privacy. For example, in the event of a disaster, the cameras can also identify where help is needed. But not only the cameras, even miniature sensors, can contribute to more safety: A motion detector can detect, for example, whether someone tinkers at windows or doors.



IOTA can get stuck in everything

IOTA is the key to enabling all that I’ve described before, because IOTA delivers the key advantages over the classic blockchain. There are already a number of pilot projects. The city administration of Taipei is working with the IOTA Foundation on the implementation of various Smart City solutions. IOTA’s Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) is to be used, among other things, as the basis for a digital citizen card and for the environmental sensor network Airbox. The IOTA Foundation, together with the city administration of Taipei and the start-up BiiLabs, wants to explore further implementation options. The latter has also specialized in DLT solutions.

As a first project, the partners are approaching the development of the digital ID. Here, the DLT technology should ensure the security of manipulation of the citizen card in order to prevent identity theft or fraud. The Citizen Card of Taipei is used, inter alia, in elections and also allows the use of various government services. In addition, the BürgerID host medical information for the healthcare sector. Reliable technological protection of these data sets is therefore essential.

In addition, DLT technology is also to be used in the already launched smart city project Airbox. This is a widely spread environmental sensor network that collects air quality data in Taipei. The measuring sensors are already installed on private buildings of citizens as well as 150 schools. The cooperation with IOTA should now enable real-time monitoring of air pollution.

Written by Markus Gebhardt; public IOTA


[1] Bosch; https://www.bosch.com/de/explore-and-experience/smart-city-challenges/

[2] Modeling emissions for three-dimensional atmospheric chemistry transport models,

Dr. Torsten Fischer,  Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht

[3] Smart Citys als Antwort auf die Urbanisierung; Hartmut Wiehr in Internet World Buisness

[4] Smart Community: So hilft Big Data in Städten, Kommunen und Gemeinden,
Christian Schön
; Big Data Blog

[5] IOTA und Taipeh schließen Smart-City-Partnerschaft, von Stefan Bordel in com professional